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MAURITANIA COUNTRY PROFILE ON CHILD MARRIAGES

MAURITANIA COUNTRY PROFILE ON CHILD MARRIAGES

What is the prevalence rate of Child marriage in Mauritania? 

With 37% of girls in Mauritania married before the age of 18 years, Mauritania has the 18th highest prevalence of Child marriage globally. 

Likewise 2% of boys in Mauritania are married before their 18th birthday.

Child marriage is most prevalent in rural areas and Guidimagha (where 55% of women aged 20-49 were married before the age of 18), Assaba (44%) and Hodh Echargui (40%).

What are the causes of Child Marriage in Mauritania 

Poverty: Girls from Mauritania’s poorest households are almost twice more likely to marry young than those living in the richest households.
Level of education:43% of women with no education were married as children, compared to only 22% who had completed secondary school or higher.
Female Genital Mutilation and Cutting (FGM/C): 67% of women and girls in Mauritania have undergone FGM. FGM/C reportedly makes it possible for girls aged eight and nine to marry because it is commonly seen as a marker of adulthood and readiness for marriage.
Harmful traditional practices: Some young girls are fed high calorie diets and animal growth hormones to accelerate puberty and increase their marriage prospects, as obesity is typically regarded as a sign of beauty in Mauritania. The practice – known as leblouh, gavage or force-feeding – seriously jeopardises the health of girls. One child bride died in 2013 after she was force fed from the age of seven and then married off to a man who was 10 years older than her father. Local organisation L’Association des Femmes Chefs de Famille has handled 140 cases of child brides subjected to gavage and chemical gavage.
Slavery: Despite slavery being made illegal in 1981, thousands of people from minority Haratine and Afro-Mauritanian groups still live as domestic servants and child brides. According to local NGOs, temporary siriya marriages continue to take place between Mauritanian girls and wealthy Middle Eastern men, particularly in Saudi Arabia.

Violence against girls: Under the practice of maslaha, or “kinship marriages”, young girls are being married off to cousins in efforts to protect them from sexual violence.

What international, Global, Regional and National Commitments has Mauritania made against Child marriage 

  • Mauritania has committed to eliminate child, early and forced marriage by 2030 in line with target 5.3 of the Sustainable Development Goals. The government reported progress towards this target during its Voluntary National Review at the 2019 High Level Political Forum. It also stated that because of population growth, the number girls at risk of this practice will continue to increase. Therefore, efforts are needed to reach the targets related to addressing child marriage by 2030, and the legal framework for gender-based violence, including child marriage and genital mutilation, needs to be improved and strengthened.
  • In 2014, Mauritania signed a joint statement at the Human Rights Council calling for a resolution on child marriage.
  • Mauritania ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991, which sets a minimum age of marriage of 18, and acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 2001, which obligates states to ensure free and full consent to marriage.
  • In 2018, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child expressed serious concerns about the continued high prevalence of child marriage in Mauritania. The Committee recommended Mauritania to expedite legislative reforms aimed at prohibiting child marriage without exception and conduct awareness-raising programmes to change public perception.
  • During its 2014 review, the CEDAW Committee raised concerns about discriminatory provisions in the Personal Status Code enabling the authorisation of marriages for girls under the age of 18 by their guardians.
  • During its 2015 Universal Periodic Review, Mauritania supported recommendations to develop a comprehensive national strategy and laws for combatting child marriage.
  • In 2005 Mauritania ratified the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, including Article 21 regarding the prohibition of child marriage.
  • In 2005 Mauritania ratified the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, including Article 6 which sets the minimum age for marriage as 18.
  • Mauritania is a partner country of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE).

What is the government doing to improve Child marriage? 

  • The Sahel Women Empowerment and Demographic Dividend (SWEDD), implemented by the government of Mauritania with technical support from UNFPA, is working to empower women and girls by keeping girls in school, among other interventions including a communication campaign. The campaign gears toward behaviour change, raising awareness about the harmful effects of child marriage and adolescent pregnancy, and attracting support from imams and religious leaders.
  • What is the minimum legal requirement for marriage 
  • Under the Personal Status Code Act 2001 the minimum legal age of marriage is 18 years with no exceptions. Article 9 and 10 of the Act mention that an adult woman cannot be married without both her consent and the presence of her guardian (weli) who must be male and Muslim, and that the silence of the woman is taken as consent.

Sources

  1. Equality Now, Protecting the girl child. Using the law to end child, early and forced marriage and related human rights violations, 2014 .
  2. Global Partnership for Education, Mauritania, [website],  .
  3. Government of Mauritania, MAURITANIE, Enquête par grappes à indicateurs multiples, 2015, 2017 .
  4. Loi N°2001-052 Du 19 Juillet 2001 Portant Code Du Statut Personnel.
  5. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Joint statement on child, early and forced marriage, HRC 27, Agenda Item 3, [website], 2014 .
  6. Musawah, Mauritania: Overview of Muslim Family Laws & Practices, 2017.
  7. Realisez Votre Potentiel de Developpement (SWEDD), Mauritanie.
  8. République Islamique de Mauritanie, Revue Nationale Volontaire des Objectifs de Développement Durable, 2019, p.38 and 39, .
  9. The Guardian, The unspeakable truth about slavery in Mauritania, [website], 2018.
  10. Thomas Reuters Foundation, Mauritania must ban deadly force feeding of child brides – activists, [website], 2014 .
  11. Tostan, UNICEF video highlights the movement to abandon female genital cutting in Mauritania, [website], 2013,  
  12. UN CEDAW, Concluding observations on the combined second and third periodic reports of Mauritania, 2014, p.13 .
  13. UN Child Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Mauritania, 2018, p. 2, 4, 5, 6.
  14. UN General Assembly, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Mauritania, 2015, p.16, 
  15. UNFPA, In Mauritania, imams take to radio waves to say child marriage is against Islam, [website], 2019
  16. UNICEF DATA, Female genital mutilation (FGM), February 2020 .
  17. United Nations, Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, [website], 2017.
  18. Women’s UN Report Network, “Forced fattening” practice of Leblouh, 2009,  
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